Created: 2011-07-10 13:04
Updated: 2013-12-22 07:54


RFID Robot


Lukasz Panek lukaszpanek87@gmail.com


robot widok z gory

This project aims to explore the possibility of autonomous vehicle control using RFID tags. For these purposes I built three wheeled vahicle that works with a grid of RFID tags.

Requirement and objectives of project

  • The project of RFID robot was created primarily for the purpose of my thesis. The main objectives of the thesis are as follows:
    • Attempt to build an autonomous vehicle that determines its position and finds the correct path to target using RFID tags.
    • Comparison of control in the triangular and rectangular grid, and control by the fixed path of movement.
    • Comparison of these methods in terms of control quality
    • Examples of use of the vehicle and possible improvements and directions for further research
  • Other objectives of the project and personal goals.
    • A better understanding of the embedded devices environment
    • A better understanding of threats and positive features of growing RFID technology
    • Good fun when writing a thesis :)

Details of vehicle construction and functions


Built vahicle moves in a special environment. Area of work is filled with RFID tags. The idea is based on hiding RFID tags under the usable surface that people have not see any element of control system.

Example work area

The Robot is designed to independently reach the target. To do this vehicle has stored in the memory map of tags. The Tags Map describe each node. Each node has such attributes as:

  • Available - not available
  • Available directions of motion from node
  • List of the nearest adjacent nodes

Based on the map, robot is able to calculate the route to its destination. Based on the achieved nodes, vehicle can determine its location and select next motion vector. During the successive achievement of grid nodes robot checks whether the actual node is the goal - if it so - robot announces reach the target and stop.

There are two main configurations of grids of tags and control with a constant track. Each grid configuration has its own rules of movement restrictions.

Example grid configuration

####Description: The first two diagrams show rectangular and triangular grid with his movement rules. The third diagram shows strategy of constant track movement. Tags have been classified into four groups - they correspond to commands:

  • F - forward
  • TR - turn right
  • TL - turn left
  • STOP - stop vehicle

###Construction of work area

To build the grid nodes I use cheap UNIQUE tags in clamshell housing. After some tests UNIQUE tags proved to work best. Single node looks like in the pictrue below:

Signle node

###Construction of autonomous mobile platform

The look of Robot

The main parts used to build vehicle showed on pictrue above are:

  • microcontroler AVR Atmega 328P
  • PCB which is also the chassis
  • RFID MP01612 module with its antenna
  • L293 NE - motor controller
  • Two DC motors and its gears for increasing torque moment
  • Control panel

Block diagram

Block diagram of vehicle. You can see the flow of information/control, between modules.


Chassis: IC1 - Atmega 328P; U1 - motor controler; U2 - RFID module; S1 - control panel; ANT1 - RFID module antenna; BAT - battery; M1,2 - motors; K1,2 - front, driven wheels; K3 - rear, independent wheel;

You can find schema of vehicle: here , and thesis is: here

Some short vid of the unfinished work yet: video video2

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